女孩子在校学习战表更好,教育展参加展览高校简介

澳门金沙国际 1图形来源:BBC

Gender, education and work: The weaker sex

Boys are being outclassed by girls at both school and university, and
the gap is widening

在高中2年级月高等高校阶段,男孩正被女孩超过,且距离正日趋拉大。

“IT’S all to do with their brains and bodies and chemicals,” says Sir
Anthony Seldon, the master of Wellington College,
a**posh**English**boarding school**. “There’s
a**mentality**that it’s not cool for them to perform, that it’s not
cool to be smart,” suggests Ivan Yip, principal of the Bronx Leadership
Academy in New York. One school charges £25,000 ($38,000) a year and has
a**scuba-diving**club; the other serves subsidised lunches to most
of its pupils, a quarter of whom have**special needs**. Yet
both**are grappling with**the same problem: teenage boys are being
left behind by girls.

壹所高等爱沙尼亚语寄宿高校的校长Anthony托Seldon称“这点壹滴取决于他们的大脑、身体和激素”。LondonBronx Leadership
Academy司长IvanYip称“他们普遍认为努力是不酷的,聪明是不酷的”。前者收取费用3.八万美金一年并设有潜水俱乐部;而另二个为其超越11分之伍学生提供午餐补贴,四分一的学生有独特殊历史学供给。不过,它们都1致致力于消除相同难点:青少年男孩远远滞后于女孩。

It is a problem that would have been unimaginable a few decades ago.
Until the 1960s boys spent longer and went further in school than girls,
and were more likely to graduate from university. Now, across the rich
world and in a growing number of poor countries, the balance
has**tilted**the other way. Policymakers who once fretted about
girls’ lack of confidence in science now spend their time dangling
copies of “Harry Potter” before surly boys. Sweden has commissioned
research into its “boy crisis”. Australia has devised a reading
programme called “Boys, Blokes, Books & Bytes”. In just a couple of
generations, one gender gap has closed, only for another to open up.

那是多个十几年前不能想像的难题。直到1九世纪70时期在此以前,男孩比女孩费用更长日子并收获更高等教学育,且更有希望从高校完成学业。今后,无论是富裕世界还是更多的贫穷国家,平衡向另1方倾斜。曾经担忧女孩缺少正确信心的方针制定者们,今后越多时光在强行男孩前边晃动《哈利Porter》。瑞士联邦政坛已委托了1项有关“男孩风险”的钻研。澳大巴塞尔(Australia)展开了一项”男孩,男子,书和比特”的品种。仅仅几代时间内,前贰天性别差距消失,而后1种性别差别又出现。

The**reversal**is laid out in a report published on March 5th by the
OECD, a Paris-based rich-country think-tank. Boys’ dominance just about
endures in maths: at age 15 they are, on average, the equivalent of
three months’ schooling ahead of girls. In science the results are
fairly even. But in reading, where girls have been ahead for some time,
a gulf has appeared. In all 64 countries and economies in the study,
girls outperform boys. The average gap is equivalent to
an**女孩子在校学习战表更好,教育展参加展览高校简介。extra**year of schooling.

以法国巴黎为集散地的充盈世界智库OECD于7月伍号发表了1份简报中展现了那种反转。男人在数学领域的主导地位差不离会持续。在平均年龄一伍虚岁时,男孩超过同年龄女孩四个月。在自然科学领域,男女学生表现万分。但是,在阅读领域,女孩一贯维持抢先地位,且距离变得更大。在那项探讨所涉及的6两国和经济体中,女孩比男孩表现优秀。女孩平均比男孩超前2个学年。

The OECD**deems**literacy**to be the most**important skill that
it assesses, since further learning depends on it. Sure enough, teenage
boys are 50% more likely than girls to fail to achieve basic proficiency
in any of maths, reading and science (see chart 1). Youngsters in this
group, with nothing to**build on**or**shine at**, are prone to
drop out of school altogether.

因进一步深造要求借助读写能力,OECD将它当做评估中最要害的技巧。果真如此,在促成数学、阅读和自然科学的底蕴能力时,年轻男孩比女孩多出二分之一的挫败也许。在那些群众体育的小伙,因无所依靠和无所出众,而更有十分大希望从该校辍学。

To see why boys and girls fare so differently in the classroom,
first**look at**what they do outside it. The average 15-year-old
girl devotes five-and-a-half hours a week to homework, an hour more than
the average boy, who spends more time playing video games
and**trawling the internet**. Three-quarters of girls read for
pleasure, compared with little more than half of boys. Reading rates are
falling everywhere as screens draw eyes from pages, but boys are giving
up faster. The OECD found that, among boys who do as much homework as
the average girl, the gender gap in reading fell by nearly a quarter.

要明了为什么匹夫和女生在课堂内呈现出那样差距,先从课堂之外活动入手。1般壹伍周岁女孩周周费用五.5时辰去做家庭作业,比平均男孩多三个钟头,他们消费更加多时光玩电子游艺和上网。3/四的女孩子将阅读作为消遣,而仅有3/6多点的男士这么做。随着显示屏渐渐把眼光从书册挪开,世界上具有地点的阅读率正日益下落,而男士下跌速度更快。OECD发现,在那三个和1般女子工作壹般的男子中,在阅读方面包车型大巴性别差别裁减了百分之二十伍左右。

Once in the classroom, boys**long to**be out of it. They are twice
as likely as girls to report that school is a “waste of time”, and more
often turn up late. Just as teachers used to struggle to persuade girls
that science is not only for men, the OECD now urges parents and
policymakers to steer boys away from a version of**masculinity**that
ignores academic achievement. “There are different pressures on boys,”
says Mr Yip. “Unfortunately there’s a tendency where they try to**live
up to**certain expectations in terms of [bad] behavior.”

1教学,男子就渴望快点甘休。在告知中,多于女孩子二倍的哥们觉得上课是浪费时间,而且更常常迟到。就如过去教师努力说服女子自然科学并不只是男性领域,OECD近期提出家长和方针制定者指点男人远离将忽视学术成就作为男生气概显示的这种想法。Yip校长说:“男孩面临着各样各种的压力。但不幸的是,他们打算在坏行为上不辜负被人期待。

Boys’**disdain**for school might have been less irrational when
there were plenty of jobs for uneducated men. But those days**have
long gone**. It may be that a bit of swagger helps in maths, where
confidence plays a part in boys’ lead (though it sometimes extends
to**delusion**: 12% of boys told the OECD that they were familiar
with the mathematical concept of “subjunctive scaling”, a red herring
that fooled only 7% of girls). But their lack of self-discipline drives
teachers crazy.

当已经有成都百货上千干活可供未受教育男性选拔时,男孩鄙视高校还显得没那么非理性。不过那些生活已经未有。只怕有个别傲然有助于哥们学习数学,自信促使男人超越(但偶尔则成为壹种幻觉:1二%的男孩告诉OECD他们明白”虚拟缩放“这一定义,而那1假概念则只蒙骗到七%的女孩)。但她俩贫乏约束让教授很感冒。

Perhaps because they can be so insufferable, teenage boys are often
marked down. The OECD found that boys did much better in its anonymized
tests than in teacher assessments. The gap with girls in reading was a
third smaller, and the gap in maths—where boys were already ahead—opened
up further. In another finding that suggests a lack of even-handedness
among teachers, boys are more likely than girls to be forced to repeat a
year, even when they are of equal ability.

唯恐因为她俩这么令人难以忍受,青少年男孩平时给予较低分数。OECD发现,男孩在匿名测试中的表现好于老师评估。在翻阅方面包车型的士性别差别缩短了1/叁;而在数学方面,已超过的男子将距离拉大。另一商量展现,因老师贫乏公平,尽管能力卓殊。男人也比女人更有不小希望被供给复读一年,

What is behind this discrimination? One possibility is that teachers
mark up students who are**polite, eager and stay out of fights**,
all**attributes**that are more common among girls. In some
countries, academic points can even be**dock**ed for bad behaviour.
Another is that women, who make up eight out of ten primary-school
teachers and nearly seven in ten lower-secondary teachers, favour their
own sex, just as male bosses have been shown to favour male underlings.
In a few places sexism is**enshrined**in law: Singapore
still**canes**boys, while**sparing**girls the rod.是什么

致使这种反差对待?1种也许的解释是师资给予这一个礼貌、热心和远离打架的学员更高分数,而那个特征在女孩中尤其普遍。在有个别国度,甚至会因不良行为而扣掉学业分数。另一种大概是,女性,构成了五分之四的小教的和接近7/拾的初级中学年老年师,更偏爱她们本身的性别,就如男性上级偏爱男性下属壹般。在壹些地方在法律中也有性别主义:新加坡照样允许鞭刑男性,而女性则免于该行政法。

Some countries provide an environment in which boys can do better. In
Latin America the gender gap in reading is relatively small, with boys
in**Chile**,**Colombia**,**Mexico**and**Peru**trailing
girls less than they do elsewhere. Awkwardly, however, this nearly
always**comes with**a wider gender gap in maths,**in favour
of**boys. The reverse is true, too: Iceland, Norway and Sweden, which
have got girls up to parity with boys in maths, struggle with
uncomfortably wide gender gaps in reading. Since 2003, the last occasion
when the OECD did a big study, boys in a few countries have caught up in
reading and girls in several others have significantly narrowed the gap
in maths. No country has managed both.

在多少国家为男孩表现不错提供了环境。在拉美,阅读方面包车型客车性别差距相对较小。如智利、哥伦比亚共和国、墨西哥和秘鲁共和国的男子落后于女子小于其余地点。但是,令人困惑的是,那总伴随着男性在数学方面超过于女性的异样加大。反过来也创制。女孩与男孩在数学方面表现特出的冰岛、挪威和瑞士联邦,挣扎于令人发怒的稳步加宽的翻阅方面性别差别。自200三年OECD最终壹遍就此展开的周边考察展现,少数国度男人在阅读方面碰着了女孩子,而在另一对国家女性成功减少了数学方面包车型大巴出入。但绝非国家成功完成双方。

Girls’ educational dominance**persists**after school. Until a few
decades ago men were in a clear majority at university almost everywhere
(see chart 2), particularly in advanced courses and in science and
engineering. But as higher education has boomed worldwide, women’s
enrolment has increased almost twice as fast as men’s. In the OECD women
now make up 56% of students enrolled, up from 46% in 1985. By 2025 that
may rise to 58%.

中档教育之后,女性的超过地位继续保持。直至新近数10年,男性大约占据大学的主流人群,尤其是合情合理与工程领域的高阶课程。可是,随着高教在世界范围的蓬勃发展,女性入学增进率大概两倍于男性。在OECD报告展现,女性注册率由1985年的4陆%升起至三分之一,到2025年恐怕上升至三分之一。

Even in the handful of OECD countries where women are in the minority on
campus, their numbers**are creeping up**. Meanwhile several,
including America, Britain and parts of Scandinavia, have 50% more women
than men on campus. Numbers in many of America’s elite private colleges
are more evenly balanced. It is widely believed that their opaque
admissions criteria are relaxed for men.

不畏在个别女性是个外人全的OECD国家,女性数量也再逐步攀升。与此同时,一些归纳美利坚联邦合众国、U.K.和澳国国家,女性比男性人口多于四分之二。在广大美利坚合众国才子私立高校中,性别比例更是平衡。许三个人觉得这个学院的不透明招生专业特别偏爱男性。

The feminisation of higher education was so gradual that for a long time
it passed unremarked. According to Stephan Vincent-Lancrin of the OECD,
when in 2008 it published a report pointing out just how far it had
gone, people “couldn’t believe it”.

高教的女性化进程如此缓慢,以至于在十分长日子内未被人发现。据OECD的Stephan
文斯nt-Lancrin称,当二零零六年1份有关报告摘立刻,人们“不正视那结果”。

Women who go to university are more likely than their male peers to
graduate, and typically get better grades. But men and women tend to
study different subjects, with many women choosing courses in education,
health, arts and the humanities, whereas men take up computing,
engineering and the**exact sciences**. In mathematics women
are**drawing level**; in the life sciences, social sciences,
business and law they have moved ahead.

进入高校的女性,相对于她们的男性同僚,更有一点都不小只怕结束学业,且赢得更好地培养。但是,男性和女性所选科指标倾向分化。更加多地女性选拔教育、健康、艺术和人事教育育学科,而男性越来越多选取总结机、工程和精美科学等学科。在数学方面,女性正壹如既往,而在科学、社科、商业和法律方面,她们处于超越地位。

Social change has done more to encourage women to enter higher education
than any deliberate policy.**The Pill**and a decline in the average
number of children, together with later marriage and childbearing, have
made it easier for married women to join the workforce. As more women
went out to work, discrimination became less**sharp**. Girls saw the
point of study once they were expected to have careers. Rising divorce
rates underlined the importance of being able to provide for yourself.
These days girls nearly everywhere seem more ambitious than boys, both
academically and in their careers. It is hard to believe that in 1900-50
about half of jobs in America were barred to married women.

周旋于任何蓄意的方针,社会变革更有利于于鼓励女性进入高教。口服避孕片和平均育儿数量的低沉,以及晚婚和晚育等,为已婚女性寻找工作提供了有益。随着越多女性进入工作条件,歧视变得没那么分明。1旦女性被冀望全数职业发展时,女孩就发现到学习的主要。回涨的离婚率使得女性意识到自家供养的要害。近年来,无论是学业上只怕职场上,世界各州的女孩比男孩表现出更丹东想。无缘无故,在1九世界上半叶,差不离大半美利哥做事禁止已婚女性从事。

So are women now on their way to becoming the dominant sex? Hanna
Rosin’s book, “The End of Men and the Rise of Women”, published in 2012,
argues that in America, at least, women are ahead not
only**educationally**but increasingly
also**professionally**and**socially**. Policymakers in many
countries worry about the**prospect**of a
growing**underclass**of**ill-educated men**. That should worry
women, too: in the past they have typically married men in their own
social group or above. If there are too few of those, many women will
have**to marry down**or not at all.

那正是说,女性是还是不是慢慢成为宗旨性别?出版于二零一二年的Ranna Rosin的《The End
of Men and the Rise of
Women》中建议,至少在美利坚联邦合众国,女性不仅教育上打头,还在事情上和社会上打头。许多国度的方针制定者担忧数量日益攀升的下层阶级的教育程度较低的男性的前景前景。女性也相应担忧那一点。在过去,女性凉凡与同阶层或高于自身阶层的男性结婚。要是这种男性较少,超越四分之一女性只可以寻找下阶层男性或选取不成婚。

According to the OECD, the return on investment in a degree is higher
for women than for men in many countries, though not all. In America
PayScale, a company that**crunches**incomes data, found that the
return on investment in a college degree for women was lower than or at
best the same as for men. Although women as a group are now better
qualified, they earn about three-quarters as much as men. A big reason
is the choice of subject: education, the humanities and social work pay
less than engineering or computer science. But academic research shows
that women attach less importance than men to the graduate pay premium,
suggesting that a high financial return is not the main reason for their
further education.

据OECD展现,虽不是全体,但是在众多国度,高教投入对女性的回报超越男性。一家采访收入数据的信用合作社America
PayScale发现,女性对于大学学历的投资回报率相对于男性而言,较低或(在最棒意况下)相似。就算女性总体彰显更是,但她们工叶尔羌河平仅为男性的四分之三。首要缘由在于相对于工程或电脑科学等,女性选用教育、人文和社会科学那类工资较低科目。然则,学术商讨展现相对于男性,女性更少的青睐报酬,突显了谋求高回报并非女性追求高教的严重性原因。

At the highest levels of business and the professions, women remain
notably scarce. In a reversal of the pattern at school, the anonymous
and therefore gender-blind essays and exams at university protect female
students from bias. But in the workplace, says Elisabeth Kelan of
Britain’s Cranfield School of Management, “traditional patterns assert
themselves in miraculous ways”. Men and women join the medical and legal
professions in roughly equal numbers, but 10-15 years later many women
have chosen unambitious career paths or dropped out to spend time with
their children. Meanwhile men**are rising through the ranks**as
qualifications gained long ago fade in importance and personality,
ambition and experience come to matter more.

在最高层级的商业和正规领域,女性依然较少。女性在全校所表现优势被反败为胜。在高校,散文及考试评价是匿名的,性别因素被制止,而保养女性不受性别歧视的熏陶。但是,来自于United KingdomCraneField理大学的埃利sabeth
Kelan称,在劳作地方守旧格局再一次申明本身。同等数量的男性和女性投入法高校和法规大学,不过,十-1伍年过后,许多女性选用了越来越干燥的事情路线或消费更多时间陪孩子。与此同时,随着从前习得的经验的要紧日益消退而天性、雄心和阅历成为更为主要的影响因素,男性在职业层级上逐步攀升。

For a long time it was said that since women had historically
been**underrepresented**in university and work, it would take time
to fill the pipeline from which senior appointments were made. But after
40 years of making up the majority of graduates in some
countries,**that argument is wearing thin**. According to Claudia
Goldin, an economics professor at Harvard, the “last chapter” in the
story of women’s rise—equal pay and access to the best jobs—will not
come without big structural changes.

非常长壹段时间以来,流传着壹种说法:因历史范围来看,无论是大学也许职场,女性所占比重不足,因而须要时间去建立通往高层职位的渠道。可是40年来说,一些国家毕业生人数中女性别变化成主流,那项论证越来越站不住脚。据加州理历史大学经济学助教Claudia高尔德in称,女性崛起的末尾环节–平等的薪俸和特级职业恐怕–若不举行大幅度结构调整是不会赶到。

In a recent paper in the American Economic Review Ms Goldin found that
the difference between the hourly earnings of highly qualified men and
their female peers grows hugely in the first 10-15 years of working
life, largely because of a big**澳门金沙国际 ,premium**in some highly paid jobs on
putting in long days and being constantly on call. On the whole men find
it easier than women to work in this way. Where such jobs are common,
for example in business and the law, the gender pay gap remains wide and
even**short spells**out of the workforce are severely penalised,
meaning that**motherhood**can**exact**a heavy price. Where pay
is roughly proportional to hours worked, as in pharmacy, it is low.

在AE牧马人的新星文献中,戈尔德in女士发现高素质劳引力中,在工作生活的10到一五年间,男性时辰薪给与女性差距巨大,主因在于高收入工作的小幅奖金取决于长日子工作和每一天应对电话为前提。全体而言,男性相对于女性更善于如此行事。在那种工作方法广泛的领域,如商业和法律,性别薪俸差距依旧十分的大。并且,甚至长时间离开工作环境也说不定造成严重惩罚,意味着阿娘索要提交较大代价。而当工作薪给主要信赖工时长度时,就像是配药房,性别薪水差别较小。

There will always be jobs where flexibility is not an option, says Ms
Goldin: those of CEOs, trial lawyers, surgeons, some bankers and senior
politicians come to mind. In many others, pay does not need to depend on
being**available all hours**—and well-educated men who want a life
outside work would benefit from change, too. But the new gender gap is
at the other end of the pay spectrum. And it is not women who are
suffering, but unskilled men.

高尔德in女士称:有些工作是难以实现灵活性的,就如这些老董s、法院开庭审判律师、眼科医师、银行家和某个闻明政客们。而其余别的工作,薪给并非在于随时待命。同时,受过卓绝教育且想要脱离工作的男性也会从中收益。可是,新的性别差距位于薪资范围的另1端。受苦的决不女性,而是无技术的男性。

二〇〇八年中中原人民共和国国际教育展将于二月12十二十七日在东方之珠拉开帷幕,随后巡回布里斯托、东京、巴拿马城和
广州伍个城市,以下为大不列颠及苏格兰联合王国本次参加展览学院和学校International College Sherborne
School简介:

Some people think that it is better to educate boys and girls in
separate schools. Others, however, believe that boys and girls benefit
more from attending mixed schools. Discuss both these views and give
your own opinion.

  Girls outperform boys in school exams

International College, Sherborne School

Some countries have single-sex education models, while in others both
single sex and mixed schools co-exist and it is up to the parents or the
children to decide which model is preferable.

  Vocabulary: education: 词汇:教育

TheInternational College is the only purpose-built school of its kind
inthe UK; established in 1977, its aim is to give school children
fromnon-British, non-English speaking backgrounds the very best start
totheir education in the UK. It provides:

Some educationalists think that it is more effective to educate boys and
girls in single-sex schools because they believe this environment can
reduce distractions and encourage pupils concentrate on their studies.
This is probably true to some extent. It also allow more equality among
pupils and gives more opportunity to all those at the school to choose
subject more freely without gender prejudice. For example, a much higher
proportion of girls study science to a high level when they attend
girls’ schools than their counterpart in mixed schools do. Similarly,
boys in single-sex schools are more likely to take cookery classes and
to study languages, which are often thought of as traditional subjects
for girls.

  Around the world, girls do better than boys at school。 These are
the findings of a recent study that looked at the test results of 1.5
million 15-year-olds in 74 regions across the globe。

a) Intensive English language training

On the other hand, some experts would argue that mixed schools prepare
their pupils for their future lives. Girls and boys learn to live
together from an early age and are consequently not emotionally
underdeveloped in their relations with the opposite sex. They are also
able to learn each other, and to experience different types of skill and
talent than might be evident in a single gender environment.

  The level of gender equality in those regions made no difference to
the results。 Other factors, such as the income level of the region
also had little impact on the findings。 In only three regions –
Colombia, Costa Rica and the Indian state Himachal Pradesh – was the
trend reversed with boys doing better。

b) Intensive academic development

Personally, I think that there are advantages to both systems. I went to
a mixed school, but feel that myself missed the opportunity to
specialise in cookery because it was seen as the natural domain and
career path for girl. So because of that, I would have preferred to go
to a boys’ school. But hopefully times have changed, and both genders of
student can have equal chances to study what they want to in whichever
type of school they attend.

  So what are the causes of girls’ stronger performance? In the UK,
girls outperform boys in exams that are taken at the age of 15 or 16,
called GCSEs。 According to education expert Ian Toone, this is down to
the way girls and boys are brought up。 “Boys are encouraged to be more
active from an early age, whereas the restless movements of baby girls
are pacified… Hence, girls develop the skill of sitting still for
longer periods of time, which is useful for academic pursuits like
studying for GCSEs。“

c) A careful introduction to the skills essential for study at boarding
schools in England

  He goes on to say that boys often cluster together in larger groups
than girls。 Because of this they are more likely to be influenced by
peer pressure and develop a gang mentality。 He says that GCSEs require
a lot of solo work and are not viewed as ‘cool’ in a laddish culture。

It is a full boarding school, for girls and boys aged between 11 and 17.

  This is backed up by research in the UK that says girls are
out-performing boys at the age of five。 So what is the answer? Should
girls and boys be educated separately? Or do exams and school curricula
need to be changed to better reflect boys’ skills? These are the
questions facing educators in many countries。

Most students study for one year before moving into top traditional
schools。

  Glossary 词汇表

We are non-selective, but achieved 90% higher level passes in
thenational GCSE examinations in 2008. All our teachers are trained,
andmost qualified, in teaching English as a foreign language, as well
asbeing qualified in their own subjects, e.g. Mathematics, Sciences,
etc.Enrolment takes place in September, January and April。

  gender equality男女壹样

The College also has an eight week summer course in July and August each
year。

  factor因素

参展城市
北京 (10月17-18日) 武汉 (10月21日) 上海 (10月24-25日) 成都 (10月28日) 广州 (10月30-11月1日)
E401

  income level收入水平

  to reverse a trend转败为胜一种倾向

  to pacify使安静、平定

  academic pursuit学术追求

  to cluster(人)聚集

  to influence影响

  peer pressure同龄人压力

  gang mentality黑帮心态

  solo单独的,独自地

  cool酷

  laddish幼稚的,孩子气的

  school curricula学校课程

  to reflect反映

  小说来源:BBC

见习编辑:王雨欣 主编:赵润琰

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